Dry bean (common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume globally. The original CROPGRO module was developed from the BEANGRO model (White et al., ), which was adapted from SOYGRO using datasets from CIAT, the University of Florida and published papers (Hoogenboom et al., 1994). The overall physiology of soybean and common bean proved very similar, so the main modifications related to differences in phenology, plant composition, and organ sizes (especially to allow for large-seeded bean cultivars).

Performance of BEANGRO was assessed for a series of field trials conducted by Dr. White at CIAT (White et al., 1995). A subsequent application was to demonstrate the importance of photoperiod sensitivity in adaptation of common bean lines to rainfed systems in the highlands of Mexico (Acosta-Gallegos and White, 1995).

The BEANGRO model was also used as a platform to estimate genotype-specific parameters (GSPs) from genetic information, resulting in the GENEGRO model (White and Hoogenboom, 1996; Hoogenboom et al., 1997). The approach was subsequently extended to CROPGRO (Hoogenboom and White, 2003) and has been applied in soybean, sorghum and wheat. For further information see the discussions of estimating GSPs.


Acosta-Gallegos, J.A., White, J.W., 1995. Phenological plasticity as an adaptation by common bean to rainfed environments. Crop Science 35, 199-204.

Hoogenboom, G., White, J.W., Jones, J.W., Boote, K.J., 1994. BEANGRO: A process-oriented dry bean model with a versatile user interface. Agronomy Journal 86, 182-190.

Hoogenboom, G., White, J.W., Acosta-Gallegos, J., Gaudiel, R., Myers, J.R., Silbernagel, M.J., 1997. Evaluation of a crop simulation model that incorporates gene action. Agronomy Journal 89, 613-620.

Hoogenboom, G., White, J.W., 2003. Improving physiological assumptions of simulation models by using gene-based approaches. Agronomy Journal 95, 82-89.

White, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., Jones, J.W., Boote, K.J., 1995. Evaluation of the dry bean model Beangro V1.01 for crop production research in a tropical environment. Experimental Agriculture 31, 241-254.

White, J.W., Hoogenboom, G., 1996. Simulating effects of genes for physiological traits in a process-oriented crop model. Agronomy Journal 88, 416-422.