Bread and durum wheat may be simulated using the CERES-Wheat model, whose origins trace back to modeling efforts of Joe Ritchie and colleagues in the 1970s (Ritchie et al., 1984). Growth is modeled via a radiation use efficiency approach. Development is potentially affected both by temperature and daylength. The temperature effects includes a response to vernalizing temperatures, which allows distinguishing among the phenology of spring, facultative and winter wheats. Ritchie et al. (1998) provides additional information on how growth, development and yield are simulated.

Recent development work on CERES-Wheat has largely focused on ensuring that, so far as possible, model parameters of CERES-Wheat and CROPSIM-Wheat (Hunt and Pararajasingham, 1995) are defined in a comparable manner. Minor modifications were made to phenology routines to avoid unrealistic behavior under certain, extreme conditions.

Examples of applications of CERES-Wheat include:

  • AgMIP wheat model intercomparisons (Asseng et al., 2013).
  • Gene-based modeling (White et al., 2008)
  • Characterizing local variability in crop phenology (Ottman et al., 2013)


Asseng, S., Ewert, F., Rosenzweig, C., Jones, J.W., Hatfield, J.L., Ruane, A.C., Boote, K.J., Thorburn, P.J., Rotter, R.P., Cammarano, D., Brisson, N., Basso, B., Martre, P., Aggarwal, P.K., Angulo, C., Bertuzzi, P., Biernath, C., Challinor, A.J., Doltra, J., Gayler, S., Goldberg, R., Grant, R., Heng, L., Hooker, J., Hunt, L.A., Ingwersen, J., Izaurralde, R.C., Kersebaum, K.C., Muller, C., Naresh Kumar, S., Nendel, C., O/’Leary, G., Olesen, J.E., Osborne, T.M., Palosuo, T., Priesack, E., Ripoche, D., Semenov, M.A., Shcherbak, I., Steduto, P., Stockle, C., Stratonovitch, P., Streck, T., Supit, I., Tao, F., Travasso, M., Waha, K., Wallach, D., White, J.W., Williams, J.R., Wolf, J., 2013. Uncertainty in simulating wheat yields under climate change. Nature Clim. Change 3, 827-832.

Hunt, L.A., Pararajasingham, S., 1995. Cropsim-Wheat: A model describing the growth and development of wheat. Can. J. Pl. Sci. 75, 619-632.

Ottman, M.J., Anthony Hunt, L., White, J.W., 2013. Photoperiod and vernalization effect on anthesis date in winter-sown spring wheat regions. Agron. J. 105, 1017-1025.

Ritchie, J.T., Godwin, D.C., Otter, S., 1984. CERES-Wheat: A user oriented wheat yield model. Preliminary documentation. AGRISTARS Publication No. YM-U3-04442-JSC-18892, East Lansing, Michigan, p. 252.

Ritchie, J.T., Singh, U., Godwin, D.C., Bowen, W.T., 1998. Cereal growth, development and yield. Understanding options for agricultural production. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 79-98.

White, J.W., Herndl, M., Hunt, L.A., Payne, T.S., Hoogenboom, G., 2008. Simulation-based analysis of effects of Ppd and Vrn loci on flowering in wheat. Crop Sci. 48, 678-687.