Model Components


Under the Hood

The Cropping System Model (CSM) is structured in a modular format in which components separate along scientific discipline lines and have interfaces which allow replacement or addition of modules. CSM now incorporates all crop models as modules using a single soil module and a single weather module. The new cropping system model now contains models of 40+ crops derived from the original SOYGRO, PNUTGRO, CERES-Maize, and CERES-Wheat crop growth models.

The following schematic illustrates the connection between the primary and secondary modules of the CSM. The main program controls all the timing for the model, while the Land Unit module is used to control processing and data transfer between all primary modules.

DSSAT Cropping System Model schematic



Primary Modules

Management Module

  • Planting
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizer
  • Tillage
  • Organic matter application
  • Chemical application
  • Harvest

Soil module

  • Soil water
  • Inorganic soil N
  • Inorganic soil P
  • Inorganic soil K
  • CENTURY soil organic matter module – A SOM–residue module from the CENTURY model was incorporated in the DSSAT crop simulation models, and a residue layer was added on top of the soil. Modifications were also made in the senescence module of CROPGRO, a model within DSSAT, so that senesced material is now added daily to the soil. By incorporating the CENTURY SOM–residue module, DSSAT crop simulation models have become more suitable for simulating low-input systems and conducting long-term sustainability analyses.
  • CERES Soil Organic matter module
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions Modules
    • Ceres Denitrification
    • DayCent Denitrification
    • N-gas emissions
    • Methane emissions
  • Surface organic mulch
  • Flood N dynamics

Weather module

Reads or generates daily weather data

Soil-Plant-Atmosphere module

Deals with competition for light and water among the soil, plants, and atmosphere

Plant module

  • CROPGRO plant growth module
    • Grain Legumes:
    • Vegetables
      • Bell pepper
      • Cabbage
      • Green bean
      • Tomato
    • Fiber crops – Cotton
  • CROPGRO-Perennial Forage
    • Alfalfa
    • Bahia
    • Bermudagrass
    • Brachiaria
  • CERES-Maize Plant Growth Module
    • Grain Cereals – Maize
  • IXIM Plant Growth Module
    • Grain Cereals – Maize
  • CERES-Sweetcorn
    • Vegetables – Sweet Corn
  • CERES-Rice Plant Growth Module
    • Grain Cereals – Rice
  • CERES-Sorghum Plant Growth Module
  • CERES-Millet Plant Growth Module
    • Grain Cereals – Millet
  • CERES-Wheat Plant Growth Module
    • Grain Cereals – Wheat, barley
  • SUBSTOR Plant Growth Module
  • AROID Plant Growth Module
    • Root Crops – Taro
    • Root Crops – Tanier
  • YUCA-Cassava
  • CROPSIM Plant Growth Module
    • Root Crops – Cassava
    • Grain Cereals – Wheat, barley
  • CERES-Beet (sugar beet)
  • CANEGRO Plant Growth Module
    • Sugar/Energy Crops – Sugarcane
  • CASUPRO Plant Growth Module
    • Sugar/Energy Crops – Sugarcane
  • ALOHA Pineapple Plant Growth Module
    • Fruit Crops – Pineapple